ES 3、ES 5、ES 6 分别是什么

上图按照时间顺序说明了 JavaScript、JScript 和 ECMAScript 的发展。

先是在网景工作的 Brendan Eich 临危受命,用十天时间设计出 LiveScript 的第一个版本。临发布前为了讨好 Sun 公司和 Java 程序员,LiveScript 改名为 JavaScript。

微软这边不甘示弱,你的浏览器有脚本功能,我的浏览器也要有啊。于是在 IE 3.0 版本附带推出 JScript。为什么叫 JScript?因为 JavaScript 已被网景公司注册,微软作为一个商业公司必须用一个新的名字。


一直致力于指定消费电子标准的 ECMA 组织,审时度势,觉得有必要把网页脚本的语法和功能统一一下,于是发布 ECMAScript 标准(第一版)。之后对该标准进行了一些修改,更新到 ECMAScript 3(一下简称 ES 3)。

所以说 ECMAScript 是这种网页脚本的标准,而 JavaScript 和 JScript 则是 ECMAScript 的两种实现。

此后的浏览器厂商都尽量依据 ES 3 来实现自己脚本语言。

如 IE 8 中的 JScript 5.8、Firefox 中的 JavaScript 1.5,都是兼容 ES 3 标准的。

从上图你会发现,之后的 9 年(2000~2009),ES 没有任何升级。期间的 ES 4 居然被放弃了。具体原因可以看这篇知乎问答:ECMAScript 6 会重蹈 ECMAScript 4 的覆辙吗? – 尤雨溪的回答。

直到 2009 年,ES 5 横空出世,同年,前端界也出了一个大事件——Node.js 发布。Node.js 是一个基于 Google Chrome 的 V8 引擎(2008年发布)的 JS 运行环境。


因为 JS 跳出了浏览器,可以在任何地方运行了。前端工程师被浏览器禁锢的创造力,如雨后春笋般爆发。

JS 维持了几年的高速增长后,大家发现 JS 语言本身,已经不适应它的发展速度了,于是 ES 的更新越来越快了,2015 年发布 ES 6,2016 年的 ES 7 直接更名为 ES 2016,对,你猜对了,以后 ES 说不定会每年更新一次了……

ES 每个版本都更新了什么呢?(大家关心的一般是 ES 5 和 ES 6 的新特性,因为 ES 3 是 IE 8 支持的版本,可以算是基本版本了)


ECMAScript 5 compatibility table

ECMAScript 6 compatibility table

ECMAScript Next compatibility table


以上,就是 ECMAScript / JavaScript 的简述。


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