XSS 是什么?

新人经常在不知不觉中写出一个 XSS 漏洞,甚至连老司机也偶有湿鞋。
请用自己的语言简述:

  1. XSS 是什么(举例说明)
  2. 如何防治 XSS

XSS 是什么?

是英文 Cross-Site Scripting 的缩写。

简单来说

  1. 正常用户 A 提交正常内容,显示在另一个用户 B 的网页上,没有问题。

  2. 恶意用户 H 提交恶意内容,显示在另一个用户 B 的网页上,对 B 的网页随意篡改。

造成 XSS 有几个要点:

  1. 恶意用户可以提交内容

  2. 提交的内容可以显示在另一个用户的页面上

  3. 这些内容未经过滤,直接运行在另一个用户的页面上

举例说明

假设我们有一个评论系统。
用户 A 提交评论「小谷你好」到服务器,然后用户 B 来访问网站,看到了 A 的评论「小谷你好」,这里没有 XSS。

恶意用户 H 提交评论「console.log(document.cookie)」,然后用户 B 来访问网站,这段脚本在 B 的浏览器直接执行,恶意用户 H 的脚本就可以任意操作 B 的 cookie,而 B 对此毫无察觉。有了 cookie,恶意用户 H 就可以伪造 B 的登录信息,随意访问 B 的隐私了。而 B 始终被蒙在鼓里。

XSS 的成因以及如何避免

继续上面例子,之所以恶意脚本能直接执行,有两个可能

  1. 后台模板问题
<p>
评论内容:<?php echo $content; ?>
</p>

$content 的内容,没有经过任何过滤,原样输出。

要解决这个原因,只需要后台输出的时候,将可疑的符号 < 符号变成 < (HTML实体)就行。

  1. 前端代码问题
$p.html(content)

或者

$p = $('<p>'+ content +'</p>')

content 内容又被原样输出了。解决办法就是不要自己拼 HTML,尽量使用 text 方法。如果一定要使用 HTML,就把可疑符号变成 HTML 实体。

示例代码

以上,就是 XSS 的简单介绍。

作者:方应杭,想学前端?进群

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  56. New worlds wait for you, whether around or far, and traveling is the right way to wide open the entrance to unforeseen points of interest, noises and experience. However it could be overwhelming on some degrees, vacation do not need to be nerve-racking if you are taking some tips in advance from people who have tread the pathways before you. A couple of pieces of expertise will go a long way in making you on an unforgettable trip. Regardless if you are vacationing inside of the United States or in a foreign region, always make sure the taxi taxi cabs you use are licensed together with the town. There is usually a sticker visible from the rear chair in the vehicle. When you are doubtful, investigation city-registered taxi cabs before you decide to traveling. This way, you can prevent unlicensed taxi cabs that overcharge their people, and reduce costs to complete more pleasurable stuff throughout your moves. When about to travel for the journey, don’t forget about any repeated flier miles you may have racked up. It can you no good to hang to individuals after you’ve previously removed in your large getaway. Even though you don’t have adequate kilometers to pay for the full journey, many airlines will enable you to low cost your amount utilizing your mls. Package your personal pillow. In case you have sleep disorders out and about, attempt getting your personal cushion coupled. Many people find it difficult to sleep in a bed furniture that isn’t their own personal. Having a familiar cushion beneath your brain can create a surprisingly significant difference. It could possibly indicate the main difference between sleepless times and becoming properly rested for the next time full of actions. In case you are coming in a new town and don’t nevertheless feel relaxed there, consider wondering in case your resort offers an air-port pickup support. This will assist you to avoid the issues of luggage porters and taxi lines which snare numerous first time travellers. Additionally, it ensures you don’t get lost inside the city and go straight to your resort. As was mentioned before in this article, the success of a vacation is normally established even before you keep. Maintain the useful suggestions you read here, in mind, while you get ready for your upcoming trip. Using this type of advice readily available, you’re more likely to generate travels that you profit from, with huge smiles.

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  58. Regardless of whether you are likely to be touring for organization purposes or for pleasure, you will find points which can be done to help be sure that your journey moves far more smoothly. The purpose of this information is to give you several recommendations that can help you to get a enjoyable trip. Know about ripoffs that try to prey on unwary travelers. In several poorer areas of the world, it is most dependable to believe that any individual pleading for the money or trying to hold you back for almost any explanation can be quite a pickpocket. Don’t possibly present or give your finances to any individual, even when they boast of being law enforcement officers. Even if you are going for a long air travel, deliver your own personal ease and comfort materials and don’t rely on air carrier workers to supply them. Ensure you take along a quilt, cushion of course, if you may use them, headphones. When you are interested in not receiving almost anything to take in about the flight, bring along your very own snack foods also. To make it easier to get your luggage as it pertains about, place a very special label or marker on the case therefore it sets alone besides all the other individuals. It could be a scarf, some neon tape, a sticker label, etc. Just be certain that it must be some thing vibrant and obvious. Consider your very best to pack your entire possessions in very little volume of suitcases as you can. You don’t would like to deliver 5 bags of travel luggage along with you about the plane and overpower oneself. Try and retract and tuck information into places where you may make extra space without the need of hurting any of your items. As an essential protection determine prior to leaving behind on a journey one should always explain to a close family member or friend whenever they plan on returning and then any other essential information about the trip. In this way the initial one is guaranteeing that somebody are fully aware of some thing is improper when no-one can be seen on the expected time. Now you ought to be considerably more prepared in terms of vacationing. You should certainly be an expert on how to proceed and what things to load for your travels! The ideas which were given must help you journey wiser where you can considerably more pleasant time.

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  60. Going to new locations is among the most satisfying activities of daily life. You can encounter diverse customs, ethnicities, areas. Traveling links anyone to individuals and events that you simply would not have knowledgeable otherwise. Nonetheless, prior to any person trips, there are a few issues they need to bear in mind. The recommendations in this post will tell you every little thing you have to know prior to going through the planet. Break up garments among luggage when traveling. When you are traveling with multiple people, divided your clothing between your specific suitcases. There exists a chance you could lose a travelling bag in your vacation. If a bag is dropped, getting the clothes separate ensures than every person could have a minimum of one modify of ensemble offered to them. If you intend to travel searching for outfits although in another country, study that area’s measurement program. Garment dimensions vary tremendously from state to state. Additionally they change significantly from company to brand name. However, a fundamental familiarity with their clothing measurements will assist you to be in the ballpark as far as locating a sizing that fits you should go. During your vacation if you’re staying at many different accommodations, make no mistake there is an simple and affordable present you are able to give your buddies as a souvenir. Accumulate each of the tiny examples such as shampoos, system washes, system lotions and caffeine packets that resorts give away, put them in a basket and give them as gift items to your friends. It can make a fantastic gift idea as it gives a style of customs from distinct resorts and is also affordable for your needs for producing a friendly action. Should you be possessing a difficulty choosing a spot to go to then create a list. Create a list of the top rated areas you would like to check out then get ranked them. From that collection after that you can investigation how much it might price to travel and pay for bills when in that region, this will help to narrow your choice in selecting places you need to check out in the future. Unless you deal with your system your skin layer will in no way look its finest. A healthy diet program with plenty healthy food products will allow you to feel happy and check wonderful. You need to eat a good amount of fruits, vegetables, whole grain products and slim protein. Consume excellent so that you can feel good. As mentioned just before, traveling is a fantastic approach to begin to see the residents of numerous various countries around the world and encounter lifestyle by means of their view. In the event you follow the suggestions found in this post before you begin traveling, it is possible to make best use of your expertise and possess memories that will keep going for a life.

  61. If you are considering having a getaway and merely have no idea where to start, you might have appear on the right location. Entertainment is exciting but to be sure your vacation programs go away with no hitch, you could find the advice and recommendations in the following paragraphs convenient. So listen closely up! If you plan on with your bank cards for investing throughout trip or vacationing, make sure that you alert companies that you are vacationing outdoors of your house village and offer them your physical location. Failure to do this may lead to your card simply being refused since the business may think that your greeting card continues to be thieved. When you are traveling, it is essential to remember to pack only what you need. This tip is most appropriate to journeys by oxygen, as suitcases costs tend to be better now compared to they earlier had been. Most international airports will sell something you possibly will not have room for and major encircling cities should also. When you are traveling exceeding a single little one, consider pre-preparing every child’s garments into a large freezer case. These totes could be tagged with each day, so the children can certainly obtain the clothes they’re likely to dress in. This helps prevent them from being forced to unpack the whole suitcase in the morning, and in addition minimizes the risk of products simply being forgotten in your own home. When you usually vacation a lot, a fantastic thing to do is invest in a postcard from each and every new spot. Collect your post cards in a image record (they are the same size as the average picture) and write the schedules around the back whenever you went there. Doing this will create your journey unforgettable and provide some good pictures to check back again on. Traveling far in the vehicle signifies consistently shifting radio station stations for kinds that the obvious. To solve this, make CDs or tapes with all the group’s favorite songs so you can jam gladly without the need of distracting yourself by trying to find a clear station when driving a vehicle. This too enables you men to listen to tunes low-end quite then sit down and await tv commercials to end. Whether you’re touring for company or pleasure, you would like to get the finest experience you are able to. These tips can help bypass probable concerns, and will make every part of your vacation more pleasurable. In the near future, you’ll be getting excited about your trip, rather than being concerned in regards to what may well go wrong.

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  63. Traveling might be gorgeous and adventurous. A lot of people wish to make new friends, see interesting things, and see new locations. Our traveling desires will probably come true when we embark on careful planning. Continue reading for suggestions that will assist make your traveling experiences pleasant types. When taking place a prolonged trip, ensure that you package weather conditions appropriate clothing. Search online to look into the weather conditions channel’s site and see which kind of weather conditions are anticipated with your travel location. As an example, don’t load up mini dresses and tennis games shoes if where you’re proceeding has many rainfall and winter weather. It not simply will keep you from obtaining ill, but also from getting unusual stares from your residents that can pinpoint tourists thus making you feel awkward. Be sure you package drinks in plastic material bags. Packaging fluids inside your travel luggage can bring about catastrophe. Nobody wants to look at their baggage and look for it loaded with poured shampoo and mouth wash. To stop such a calamity completely, make sure you package all fluids in ziplock bags. Make sure you seal the luggage properly. A plastic material shoe organizer over your resort door is able to keep you organized. It is not easy to be prepared out and about, with hardly any storage space besides your travel suitcase. Put an coordinator over your bathroom entrance when you show up, the type together with the clear pockets is most beneficial. It can be used to hold your necessities while keeping them where it’s easy to locate. To receive the best assistance when you are traveling, idea generously at the start of the trip. In the event the bellboy or steward knows that you suggestion well, they will be more likely to tend to your expections. Particularly on cruises, you’ll acquire more personal interest and service from your staff members if you’re considered as large. As you can see, there are many issues to think about when organizing your vacation to ensure it’s as safe and enjoyable as possible. If you’re arranging a trip, ensure that you talk about this collection cautiously and look away each thought to ensure your holiday will be the very best it can be.

  64. Many individuals absolutely love vacationing. You may go all over community or throughout the world. There will be new spots to go to. This information will help you discover your trip’s specifics easier. When traveling, it’s important to pack gentle. Load items within other considerations (rolled-up socks and underwear inside of your boots, as an example). If you can, take knitted or micro-fiber clothing that you can roll up tightly within your handbag. Usually bring clothes you can wash inside the motel basin and suspend to dry if needed. Roll all garments instead of foldable. Make sure your residence does not appearance unfilled when you are away. Coming home to discover that you have been robbed might be a nightmare. If you intend to be gone for any sizeable time period, think about redirecting or developing a close friend pick-up your postal mail for you. Acquire air-port have-on size toiletries when soaring to the up coming traveling location. Shop them in zip lock bags inside your baggage so you won’t need to be concerned about stability confiscating them. Try getting into a major exercise before you table the aeroplane. Having a long airline flight may be cumbersome. Your own muscles can simply cramp from maintaining the identical situation for long times. When a workouts are unthinkable, then no less than do a little stretching before you decide to board. This information has demonstrated you how to get great deals on vacation. With this guidance, it will be possible to view far more locations and lower your expenses dollars than the other vacationers on the market. Would it be Italy, Australia, or China? Go take pleasure in what the world provides!

  65. Think you understand everything you should know about vacationing? You might want to you better think again. In the following paragraphs, you are going to be provided recommendations and data about traveling. Several things you might have already acknowledged, a few things you haven’t. In any event, knowing these guidelines can only direct you towards your moves. To protect yourself from any cumbersome confrontations, perform a little research in case you are planing a trip to a foreign land. This includes searching for normal phrases such as “thanks a lot,” “simply how much” and “how are you presently.” You must also look around for regular customs of the country, including motions, to enable you to stay away from bad anyone with motions or entire body words that appear normal for your needs. If you’re gonna be vacationing in a hotel, one of the first points you want to do is look into the security alarm time clock. Frequently both the guest previous or a maid taking part in a prank will have the alert time clock established and it could wake you up blaring within your ear during the evening. Load dryer sheets in your travel luggage. When you have actually flown just before, you could have noticed that often your suitcases comes back smelling a little bit strange. To reduce this problem while keeping your garments and valuables smelling clean, use dryer bedding. Pack them in between layers of clothes. If you come to your vacation spot don’t be reluctant to ask for assist by any means. The residents of the city ought to be greater than ready to provide you with good advice on where to check out. You would like to make the best from your practical experience so don’t be shy, remember you’ll almost certainly never see those individuals once more anyway. Every one of these things are excellent in making you to ultimately go going to that exciting new land that you’ve always aspired to pay a visit to. Ensuring that you will be ready might take out each of the doubt that may cause you to nervous about getting into another location to help you simply take pleasure in your trip towards the max.

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  67. It can be difficult to challenge the immense satisfaction people from a lot of avenues of life get from camping outdoors. To actually optimize your next outdoor camping venture, you need to possess a good number of beneficial tips and tricks. The article that comes after is chock packed with useful details sure to help make your time and energy from the excellent in the open air a massive good results. Prior to deciding to go out on your lengthy-awaited outdoor camping journey, be sure the place where you intend to camp out doesn’t need a camping allow. If you camp out in the place that does call for one particular and you also didn’t acquire one, then you could be going through a significant large admission or fine coming from a community woodland ranger. Make sure you are mindful of what private hospitals are near your campsite and the ways to arrive at them. While you don’t want to contemplate something poor occurring on the getaway, it really is a chance. A number of injuries will necessitate a trip to the physician, so it is recommended to know what to do well before anything takes place, and also you will be in freak out mode. Try a “jungle your morning meal” with the young people in your camping out bash. Pack breakfasts of cereal, fruit juice and fresh fruit in bags and cover them anywhere in the campsite. When your kids stand up, ask them to hunt down their breakfast time. It is a wonderful strategy to add spice to the entire camping out vacation. Carry a bandana or handkerchief along. In emergencies, this kind of cloth turns into a towel, a potholder or a sheet of luggage. Require a couple of along anytime you go camping outdoors. A single useful machine to take with you once you go out on your up coming camping out trip is actually a roll of duct adhesive tape. This object has lots of employs and could save you considerable time and cash. Duct adhesive tape can be used to maintenance something. It can also repair a tarp, resting case, and even the tent. You can also put some under your toes eventually hikes so that you don’t get lesions. It even functions like a bandage. Outdoor camping provides just about anyone the chance to peacefully commune with nature. But, as a way to have the particular encounter you truly need, it really is required to have a particular degree of knowing and know-how. With any fortune, the advice contained previously mentioned provides the basis each and every camper needs to have a wonderful backyard experience.

  68. Many individuals fantasize about vacationing all over the world. It’s enjoyable considering discovering spectacular areas, but very best recollections happen whenever you prepare your vacations correctly. These tips will ensure there is the very best time while traveling. When traveling out of your country, it is advisable to consume only bottled water. This is especially essential in countries in which the quality of their faucet water might be doubtful. It’s safer to potentially spend a bit more and become harmless than threat acquiring sick due to contaminated plain tap water. Travel luggage is generally a sizeable problem when folks vacation. Although it might seem like a great idea to purchase your young children modest dimensions baggage, bear in mind that they are eligible for an entire sizing hold-on on the majority of key air flow companies. This added suitcases room can frequently help save from looking at an added part of baggage. This will save you from $25 to $50 of all airlines! It is recommended to arrive early on to the air-port when you are traveling by air. It is actually so much less stress filled being aware of that you will be checked out in and thru stability eventually to extra. It provides you with a chance to take advantage of the restroom or pick up a treat before the trip begins boarding. When your personalized car is greater than a several years old and you will definitely be going for a highway trip, think about renting a vehicle for that experience. You are going to ensure that the car you generate is mechanically audio as well as probably booking an automobile that will get better fuel useage than your own personal. In case you are vacationing with any kind of prescribed medication, which includes arrival manage supplements, you must place them in their initial storage containers with labels. It is also beneficial to have a letter from the medical doctor indicating that you have a healthcare desire for the products. Using this method, you are unable to be accused of medication smuggling. Now that you have see the suggestions offered from the above report, you should be a lot more at ease with regards to touring. You will find the knowledge now it’s time and energy to apply it. Your assurance should be substantial once you start your travels and begin to explore various areas and civilizations.

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  71. It is difficult to question the immense satisfaction people from countless walks of life get from outdoor camping. To really optimize your up coming camping experience, you have got to hold a number of useful tricks and tips. This content that comes after is chock filled with useful information and facts confident to help with making your time and effort in the wonderful outside a tremendous success. When moving camping, try and acquire low-perishable items to take in. You can find no refrigerators within the wild, so anything you provide has to be stored in good get. You are able to certainly deliver a cooler to get foods in, but the colder will probably be included bulk on your vacation. Consequently, try to take much more no-perishable food items than perishable. If you are planning on a outdoor camping venture, make sure you have plenty of time to setup camping just before dark. It can be extremely hard to create camping at nighttime and maybe hazardous. You have to be capable to look the surfaces, put together home bedding, and possibly build some momentary shelter prior to the sunshine going down. Drinking water is extremely important when camping. When outdoor camping at the campground, there has to be ample flow of drinking water accessible, but about the path, you will have to bring some along. If you are going lengthy distance, you should probably have iodine pills to sterilize any water you locate just before enjoying. Take care, dysentery may be fatal. Acquire together a container with vital items when you go camping. Incorporate things like put fits, a flash light, cooking resources and palm cleanser. Put together in advance. Take into consideration everything you will need days and nights before you leave on your own journey, particularly if you is going to be not even close to any retailer. A single convenient machine to take with you once you set off on your own following outdoor camping journey is really a roll of duct adhesive tape. This product has lots of employs and could help you save lots of time and money. Duct adhesive tape could be used to repair anything at all. Additionally, it may fix up a tarp, getting to sleep case, or maybe the tent. You can even put some within your ft . in a short time hikes in order that you don’t get bruises. It even performs being a bandage. Getting to know what there is to know about camping outdoors is a great point to possess in your mind. Even when you aren’t gonna plan out a camping out getaway sooner, it is actually at the very least a smart idea to be sure that you know what it can choose to adopt to go camping for future guidance.

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